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But, as the limbo of the Fathers ended at the time of Christ's Ascension, hades ( Vulgate infernus ) in the New Testament always designates the hell of the damned.
Since Christ's Ascension the just no longer go down to the lower world, but they dwell in heaven ( 2 Corinthians 5:1 ).
We even read of the earth opening and of the wicked sinking down into hell ( Numbers sqq.
; Psalm ; Isaiah ; Ezekiel ; Philippians , etc.). Gregory the Great wrote: "I do not dare to decide this question. For citations from this patristic teaching see Atzberger, "Gesh. Eschatologie innerhalb der vornicanischen Zeit" (Freiburg, 1896); Petavius, "De Angelis", III, iv sqq.
Hinnom seems to be the name of a person not otherwise known.
The Valley of Hinnom is south of Jerusalem and is now called Wadi er-rababi. Besides Hades and Gehenna, we find in the New Testament many other names for the abode of the damned.
Hence, there will also be punishment for sin in the next life.
It was notorious as the scene, in earlier days, of the horrible worship of Moloch. It is called "lower hell" ( Vulgate tartarus ) ( 2 Peter 2:4 ), "abyss" ( Luke and elsewhere), "place of torments" ( Luke ), "pool of fire" ( Revelation and elsewhere), "furnace of fire" ( Matthew , 50 ), "unquenchable fire" ( Matthew , and elsewhere), "everlasting fire" ( Matthew 18:8 ; ; Jude 7 ), "exterior darkness" ( Matthew ; ; ), "mist" or "storm of darkness" ( 2 Peter ; Jude 13 ).
For this reason it was defiled by Josias ( 2 Kings ), cursed by Jeremias ( Jeremiah -33 ), and held in abomination by the Jews, who, accordingly, used the name of this valley to designate the abode of the damned (Targ. The state of the damned is called "destruction" ( apoleia , Phil., iii, 19, and elsewhere), "perdition" ( olethros , 1 Timothy 6:9 ), "eternal destruction" ( olethros aionios , 2 Thessalonians 1:9 ), "corruption" ( phthora , Galatians 6:8 ), "death" ( Romans ), "second death" ( Revelation and elsewhere). Some were of opinion that hell is everywhere, that the damned are at liberty to roam about in the entire universe, but that they carry their punishment with them.
Thus by derivation hell denotes a dark and hidden place.
In ancient Norse mythology Hel is the ill-favoured goddess of the underworld.